The course will cover the renewal of the French Republic in the aftermath of the Paris Commune uprising and follow the remarkable economic, social, and cultural developments that followed. The basic approach will be through the literature, music, and literature of the time. Industrial growth was accompanied by the rise of labor movements that gravitated toward socialism and communism. There was also rapid growth in the middle class and within the ranks of the wealthy. Each level of society helped to create a distinctive French culture in music, art, and literature. The artists of the day made Paris the center of painting, the musicians were equally important, and the literary figures produced a remarkable record of the period that has continued to attract readers. It was a brilliant time that ended miserably in World War I, a horror that itself created its own unique culture.